My friend and I decided to take the train from Florence to the walled city of Lucca for the day. Lucca is an ancient city. On fertile plains surrounded by forested hills, it was first recorded as a Ligurian settlement, then it was settled by the Etruscans, then it became a roman settlement. In the early middle ages Lucca became a prosperous trading town, but over the centuries various walls were created to keep out invaders. In 1605 the last phase of the large defensive walls around Lucca were completed. Unfortunately these fortifications did harm trade with the outside world a bit. Inside its walls, Lucca is like a medieval time capsule.
While we were there we saw the Duomo di San Martino, and we climbed up the steps to the top of the Torre Guinigi. It was a piping hot day in Lucca, and so the cool breezes at the top of the tower were just great. There are also some small trees planted on the top, which provides some shade to admire the views from.